Unlike stars and galaxies, dark matter does not emit any light or electromagnetic radiation of any kind, so that we can detect it only through its gravitational effects. In the first moments after the Big Bang, the universe was extremely hot and dense. As the universe cooled, conditions became just right to give rise to the building blocks of matter – the quarks and electrons of which we are all made. A few millionths of a second later, quarks aggregated to produce protons and neutrons. As the universe continued to expand and cool, things began to happen more slowly.
In their experiments, they use microstructured “atom chips” to laser-cool, trap, and coherently manipulate clouds of ultracold atoms. Using tailored magnetic potentials generated by current-carrying wires on the chip, they perform experiments on the quantum physics of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates . In particular, they investigate many-particle entangled states of the BECs and their possible application in quantum metrology and quantum information processing. Furthermore, they use the atoms as sensitive probes for electromagnetic fields near the chip surface and to study the dynamics of on-chip solid-state systems such as tiny mechanical oscillators.
Our research combines experiment with theory, employing techniques of atomic physics, quantum optics and optomechanics. A common goal of our activities is to investigate quantum physics in systems of increasing size and complexity. In the laboratories of modern physics the elementary components of matter are studied. To do this, scientists sometimes build artificial atoms to help them understand the laws of matter. A research team at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Villigen/AG) uses a specifically modified helium atom to determine the exact mass and other properties of pions. Pions could help to understand more precisely where atomic nuclei get their mass from.
By a precise arrangement of the experiment, they ensured that not even the faintest trace of the light-vibration pair creation time (t1 vs. t2) was left in the universe. Quantum mechanics then predicts that the phonon-photon pair becomes entangled, and exists in a superposition of time t1andt2. This prediction was beautifully confirmed by the measurements, which yielded results incompatible with the classical probabilistic theory. Researchers at ETH Zurich and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology are exploring a fundamentally new type of microchip that works with single-atom switches. The new chip will be 100 times smaller than standard CMOS chips, yet able to process at least as much data while consuming much less energy.
After applying the microwave field for some time, its spatial field distribution is therefore imprinted onto the hyperfine state distribution in the atomic cloud. From this distribution, which we image onto a CCD-camera, we can reconstruct the microwave field. We strive to image and measure molecular properties with ever increasing resolution. We are investigating the fundamental properties of individual atoms and molecules on solid surfaces. We are specifically interested in the build-up of novel molecules and atomic-scale nanostructures using atom manipulation, that is, creating them with the tip of the microscope. Microwaves are an essential part of modern communication technology.
- Physicists had assumed that matter in the universe would slow its rate of expansion; gravity would eventually cause the universe to fall back on its centre.
- The researchers achieved the energy reduction by making electrodes out of tin rather than silver.
- In particular, they investigate many-particle entangled states of the BECs and their possible application in quantum metrology and quantum information processing.
- The calculations reveal that the Pauli repulsion is the source of the atomic resolution and yield insights into the important role of the tip functionalization .
- The technique is based on nuclear magnetic resonance, which takes advantage of the fact that certain atomic nuclei interact with a magnetic field.
- Three years after the discovery of the pion, Powell received the Nobel Prize.
The researchers achieved the energy reduction by making electrodes out of tin rather than silver. “We first used silver, because it was the easiest way to realise the single-atom transistor,” Schimmel explains. But then, he and his team began testing the physical and electrochemical properties of other metals, paying particular attention to their viability for single-atom technology. “Our single-atom transistor made of tin is a true milestone in our research,” says Schimmel. One of the world’s leading pion sources is located in Switzerland at the Paul Scherrer Institute , one of the large research facilities of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology . PSI in Villigen is a much sought-after place for scientists dedicated to researching the pion.
Faculté Des Sciences
The ratio between voltage and energy consumption is exponential rather than proportional. This means that when voltage is reduced by a factor of ten, energy consumption decreases by a factor of one hundred. As such, the single-atom switch already uses ten thousand times less energy than today’s silicon semiconductor technology.
Atom And Molecule Manipulation
“This fundamental understanding is critical, as it’s key to finding a technological application,” Schimmel says, adding that, “we can only control what we understand”. Professor Thomas Schimmel is a research partner in the single-atom switch project conducted at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich ; the project receives funding from the Werner Siemens Foundation. Schimmel is considered a pioneer in single-atom electronics; in his Karlsruhe lab, he invented a mind-bogglingly efficient single-atom transistor that could significantly lower energy consumption in computers. Now, he is collaborating with the teams of his ETH Zurich colleagues, Professor Jürg Leuthold and Professor Mathieu Luisier, to translate the innovative invention into practical application. By 2021, the researchers aim to have laid the theoretical and technological groundwork necessary to create a prototype processor with 20 single-atom components.